Entendendo o gerenciamento de mudanças - Blog CMMI & MPS.Br

Entendendo o gerenciamento de mudanças

By on April 14, 2009

Pesquisas apontam que pelo menos metade dos fracassos em projetos de TI vem da falta de gerenciamento de escopo.

Simplificando, o escopo do projeto, nada mais é do que o que foi combinado fazer.

Vamos à uma analogia: Preciso trocar os pneus do meu carro. Faço um levantamento dos produtos e serviços necessários e verifico que precisarei de:
– Quatro pneus [Produto]
– Troca dos mesmos [Serviço]
– Alinhamento [Serviço]
– Balanceamento [Serviço]

Bom, este é o escopo deste meu projeto “Trocar Pneu” e devo fazer uma gestão efetiva deste escopo, para não gastar mais que o previsto.

Vou na loja, faço o pedido e aguardo. Após meia hora o vendedor (que obviamente quer vender) me fala que seria bom eu trocar os amortecedores também porque estão ruins. Vamos parar um pouco neste ponto.

Trocar os amortecedores tem custo e o vendedor vai cobrar com certeza. Esta troca esta fora do meu escopo inicial e devo decidir se mudarei o escopo ou não.

Reparem que quem decide sou eu, só que esta decisão traz impacto (aumento do custo). Será que vai adiantar alguma coisa se eu chegar ao vendedor e “espernear” falando que isto estava “sub-entendido” na troca e por isso não vou pagar? Com certeza não. Eu ficaria muito feliz se ele fizesse isto de graça, mas isto não vai acontecer pois tem custo pra ele.

Voltando, decido por não trocar pois esta fora do meu escopo inicial e isto ultrapassará o valor que eu tinha previsto.

Se coloquem agora no lugar do vendedor (que é o nosso!) e simulem a mesma situação. Vocês dariam os amortecedores ao cliente?

É isto que não se pode fazer (dar algo não combinado), temos sim é que cumprir o escopo previsto em nossos projetos e sempre posicionar o cliente de possíveis necessidades de mudanças.
Mas lembrando, o escopo não muda, a não ser que alguém permita.
O Gerente do projeto deve sempre ser firme e demonstrar os impactos (esforço, custo, prazo, etc) e nunca permitir o aumento sem que o cliente concorde com os impactos (formalmente). Comunicação é primordial.

Você deve tratar os custos (estimativas em geral) dos projetos como se este dinheiro fosse sair do seu próprio bolso.

Em tempo: Alguns pontos ajudam muito a “definir o escopo” como:
– Uma proposta comercial bem elaborada;
– Deixar claro o que será feito e o que será entregue (tudo);
– Deixar claro o que não será feito;
– Deixar claro suas responsabilidades e as do seu cliente;
– Estimar com uma técnica segura sempre que possível – recomendo APF (melhora significativamente a acertividade);
– Fazer um bom planejamento e gerenciar de verdade o projeto;

Fazendo isto sempre em seus projetos, além de reduzir considerávelmente suas dores de cabeça com o projeto você também estará atendendo boa parte da parte de engenharia do CMMI.

About Washington Souza

Black Belt, Washington Souza tem mais de 10 anos de experiência com gestão. Participou de implantações em todos os níveis CMMI e MPS.Br A. Gosta muito de Six Sigma e gestão como um todo.

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